MORALS IN LIFE
Every hour of every day we question the morals of life and the roles that people act in our daily lives. Despite this we
are divided between a line where one hand we may see life full of happiness, romance and trust. However life can be encountered
by violence due to a breakdown in relationships and anticipated by a number of factors which include the lack of financial
and social needs.
One of the largest steps any person can take is marriage. These days divorce rates are very high and in my opinion the
time to reduce high divorce rates must be acted upon as soon as possible. One method before deciding the large leap to marriage
is find some activities that you enjoy and test your partner to see if they enjoy it as well. Why? In some cases testing your
partner can lessen the chances when you are married that your life is not boring. In addition individuals must remember
the sense of humor that your partner exposes can mean the different between a boring life and a life full of prosperity, romance
and trust.The following quote is from a unknown source.
"What is more important to you the love you share, the memories you have or the lover? Give love a chance to swallow you
up. Don't just think it will happen in a instant, it will suprise you before you know it, but it will be the most rewarding
experience you will ever have."
"In marriage, each partner is to be an encourager rather than a critic, a forgiver rather than a collector of hurts, an
enabler rather than a reformer".
H. Norman Wright and Gary J. Oliver
The following was adapted from Speaker's Sourcebook II by Glenn Van Ekeren:
Love at first sight is easy to understand;
it's when two people have been looking at each other for a lifetime that it becomes a miracle.
The following quote is from a anonymous source:
"No matter how ugly you think you are, that special someone that loves you believes you are the most beautiful and irresistable
thing on earth and nothing can ever change that."
One of the the rules I always had in life was Sleep, Socialize and Study. Sleeping is important not only to recharge the
brains after at least 8 hours of sleep, but to allow us to grow at a certain point, which in many aspects can be up to the
age of 18. However socializing should not be ruled out as many benefit in self confidence later in life. Many managers receive
self esteem while they are young and open minded to many changes in their lives. In my opinion studying is one of the most
important aspects of life, for example Natalie Portman who is a role model to many women once said "I'm going to college.
I don't care if it ruins my career. I'd rather be smart than a movie star." Additionally in regards to this Education is the
most importance aspect in life. To succeed in life you must follow steps in achieving goals like a never ending tunnel where
it never ends until a solution is found. Many teenagers believe education is waste of time and rather they would be involved
in drugs and gangs. However education is like gold, a possession that if you don't grab it in both hands you may lose it forever.
Life is full of potential, setbacks, prosperity and achievement but the answer is progress to understand these values
which are implemented in life.
"Life without love is like a tree without blossom and fruit".
CHALLENGES IN LIFE
Life is a challenge no matter what generation you were born in ether in the Silent generation (before 1945),
Baby Boomers (late 1940s till 1969), Generation X (1970-1979) and Nintendo Generation or known as Generation Y (1980 till
2003). We take many things for granted not only from friends and family but from society as a whole. In Addition in the film
Forest Gump when Tom Hanks says in the movie "Life is like a box of Chocolates" people must understand the chocolate in my
opinion (in the current circumstances) represents wealth that if it is not properly taken care of then their is a likehood
of the individual facing the consequences. Furthermore It does not matter where in the world who you are as long as you try
to achieve the goals that not only assists the future of your lives but also health and well being of your parents and family.
Many adolescents believe that parents just cause trouble and should mine their own business. However, the relationship between
parents and teenagers show that parents are the rock and a child is their soul, where these combine the true meaning
of a relationship will be understood. I believe if a child wishes to question the authority of their parents why not do the
following. If you are struggling in school and your parents say stop wasting time with your friends and concentrate on your
studies, try pretending your going out with your friends and instead go to a library or a quiet environment other then your
room to study. In your final year if you do this and receive the grades you worked hard for then surprise your parents with
your achievement and I a guess the rest of your career is up to you. Keep in mind that high school is cool if you stay
off the drugs, alcohol and smoking because you are not only helping yourself but also your future. In life image is important
but having a stable career, family and friends are more important. Every generation is different, but to learn
the mistakes of previous generations makes all the difference when decisions and opportunities arise.
"Many of life's circumstances are created by three basic choices: the disciplines you choose
to keep, the people you choose to be with; and, the laws you choose to obey".
WHAT REALLY IS THE AGE OF MATURITY AND WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
In many religions the age of maturity differs due to the beliefs of individuals. In some cases maturity can occur at the
age of 13, 15, 18 or 21 . However maturity has nothing to do with age but rather with the attitude that a individual reveals
towards people. When a individual turns 18 or 21 it is a significant step towards adulthood. Although the older a person becomes
the wiser he/she shall become in facing many challenges in life.
Nevertheless in my opinion the true age of maturity is 35 , when a individual reaches this age he/she shall in some cases
they have a stable job, children and a family. The Story Bin regards maturity as "lives that are a maze of broken promises,
former friends, unfinished business, and good intentions that somehow never materialize". Also it expresses that maturity
is the capacity to face unpleasantness and frustration, discomfort and defeat, without complaint or collapse. Maturity is
humility. It is being big enough to say, "I was wrong." And, when right, the mature person need not experience the satisfaction
of saying, "I told you so."
These are many challenges that face the daily lives of million of couples, singles
and nuclear families. In the world today their are more individuals who have not taken the large step towards maturity. However
maturity is like a time line if the individual does not complete one section of the time line the door is locked until the
maturity of the individuals grows. Finally as Albert Einstein (1879-1955) once said " I live in that solitude
which is painful in youth, but delicious in the years of maturity".
`GOTCHA!' TWENTY-FIVE BEHAVIOR TRAPS GUARANTEED TO EXTEND YOUR STUDENTS' ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL...
(INTERVENTION IN SCHOOL & CLINIC)
Describes effective natural reinforcers that teachers can use in the
classroom to help students develop positive and
Like many fifth graders struggling with reading and math, Carlos experiences
school as tedious and unrewarding. With few friends of his own, Carlos
finds that even recess offers little reprieve.
But he does find solace
in his baseball cards, often studying, sorting, and playing with them
in class. His teacher,
Ms. Greene, long ago lost count of the number
of times she had to stop an instructional activity to separate Carlos
his beloved baseball cards. Then one day, when she approached
Carlos' desk to confiscate his cards in the middle of a
alphabetization, Ms. Greene discovered that Carlos had already alphabetized
all the left-handed pitchers
in the National League! Being the insightful
and ever-creative teacher that she is, Ms. Greene realized she'd found
secret to sparking Carlos' academic development.
Carlos was both astonished and thrilled to learn that Ms. Greene
only let him keep his baseball cards at his desk, but also encouraged
him to "play with them" during class. Before
long, Ms. Greene had
incorporated baseball cards into learning activities across the curriculum.
In math, Carlos calculated
averages; in geography, he located the
hometown of every major leaguer born in his state; and in language
wrote letters to his favorite players requesting an autographed
photo. Carlos began to make significant gains academically,
improvement in his attitude about school was also apparent.
But school became really fun for Carlos when
some of his classmates
began to take an interest in his knowledge of baseball cards and all
the wonderful things you
could do with them. Ms. Greene helped Carlos
form a classroom Baseball Card Club, giving him and his new friends
to develop and practice new social skills as they responded
to their teacher's challenge to think of new ways to integrate
into the curriculum.
How did all these dramatic and wonderful changes in Carlos occur?
Skills that Carlos
had not acquired before were now being practiced,
mastered, and used in a wide variety of meaningful ways. Much to
his and his teacher's delight, Carlos had been ensnared by a
WHAT IS A BEHAVIOR TRAP?
and Wolf (1970) were the first to use the term behavioral trap
in describing how natural contingencies of reinforcement
promote and maintain generalized behavior changes. They compared the
operation of a behavior trap to that
of the common household mousetrap:
Consider, for example, that very familiar model, the mouse trap. A
mouse trap is an environment designed to accomplish
modification in a mouse. Note that this modification has thorough
generality: the change in behavior
accomplished by the trap will be
uniform in all environments, it will extend to all of the mouse's
it will last indefinitely into the future. Furthermore,
a mouse trap allows a great amount of behavioral change to be
by a relatively slight amount of behavioral control. A householder
without a trap can, of course, still
kill a mouse. He can wait patiently
outside the mouse's hole, grab the mouse faster than the mouse can
and then apply various forms of force to the unfortunate
animal to accomplish the behavioral change desired. But this
requires a great deal of competence: vast patience, super-coordination,
extreme manual dexterity, and
a well-suppressed squeamishness. By
contrast, a householder with a trap need very few accomplishments:
If he can merely
apply the cheese and then leave the trap where the
mouse is likely to smell that cheese, in effect he has guaranteed
change in the mouse's future behavior.
The essence of a trap, in behavioral terms, is that only a relatively
response is necessary to enter the trap, yet once entered,
the trap cannot be resisted in creating general behavior change.
the mouse, the entry response is merely to smell the cheese. Everything
proceeds from there almost automatically:
The householder need not
have more control over the mouse's behavior than to get him to smell
the cheese, yet he accomplishes
thorough change in behavior. (Baer
& Wolf, 1970, p. 321, emphasis added)
Effective behavior traps have four
essential features: (1) They are
"baited" with powerful, virtually irresistible reinforcers that "lure"
to the trap. (2) Only a small, easy-to-perform response
that is already in the student's repertoire is necessary to enter
the trap. (3) Once the student is inside the trap, interrelated contingencies
of reinforcement motivate the student
to acquire, extend, and maintain
targeted academic and/or social skills (Kohler & Greenwood, 1986).
(4) They can
remain effective over a long period of time because the
student shows relatively few, if any, satiation effects.
traps are all around us. And it's not just school children
who get trapped. Behavior traps are particularly evident in
our lives in the activities we "just can't get (or do) enough of."
Consider the case of the "reluctant bowler":
A young man is persuaded to fill in as a substitute for a friend's
bowling team. He has always regarded bowling
as uncool, an activity
for persons not like himself. And bowling looks so easy on television
that he does not see
how it can be considered a real sport. Nevertheless,
he is persuaded to go, just to help out this one time. During the
evening he finds out that bowling is not nearly so easy as he has
always thought (he has a history of being reinforced
by athletic challenges)
and also that some very nice people whom he would like to get to know
are avid bowlers (i.e.,
it is a mixed doubles league). Within a week
he has purchased a custom-fitted bowling ball, a bag, and shoes; has
practiced on his own; and has signed up for the next league
season. (Heward, 1987, p. 571)
This example illustrates
the fundamental nature of behavior traps:
easy to enter and difficult to exit. Behavior traps can also be maladaptive,
such as alcoholism, drug addiction, and juvenile delinquency. The
everyday term vicious circle refers to the natural
reinforcement that operate in destructive behavior traps. Teachers,
however, can learn to build and
set behavior traps that function
as "success circles" to help students develop positive, constructive
SETTING UP A BEHAVIOR TRAP
Creating and using behavior traps involves five steps:
2. Find Some Powerful Bait.
3. Set the Trap.
4. Maintain Your Trap Line.
Step 1: Identify Your Prey
The most effective and efficient trappers know exactly the kind of
"catch" they are after and set prey-specific trap lines. The first
step in creating a classroom behavior trap is to
decide what kind
of academic or social skills you are after. Many students; especially
those with special learning
needs, have numerous skill deficits, and
any single behavior trap--no matter how powerful--is not likely to
Considerations that should go into determining which knowledge and
skill areas to target for trapping
should include the following:
1. In which area does the student most need help? Use the power of
a behavior trap
for those academic or social skills in which the student
needs the most assistance.
2. Are you trapping for relevant
prey? Remember the "relevance of
behavior role" (Allyon & Azrin, 1968), and target only knowledge and
will contact naturally existing contingencies of reinforcement
after you are no longer minding the trap--in other words,
skills that are or will be frequently demanded and clearly useful
in students' present and future environments
after you are no longer
minding the trap.
3. Are you targeting behaviors that lend themselves to frequent practice
opportunities? Students learn faster and better when they receive
frequent opportunities to actively practice and
use new skills and
knowledge (He-ward, 1994). There is little benefit in designing an
elaborate trap that can only
be used once every 2 or 3 weeks.
4. Are you beginning with "small game" and gradually and systematically
your way up to larger prey? When Ms. Greene discovered that
Carlos had already alphabetized some of his baseball cards,
resisted the temptation of immediately requiring him to produce a
large, multicomponent language arts
assignment with the cards. Following
Ms. Greene's example, use your trap for smaller prey at first, and
lure the bigger catch later.
Step 2: Find Some Powerful Bait
Once the target skills have been identified,
the teacher is ready
to find some good bait. Any trap is only as effective as the bait
with which it is set. Make
an inventory of your students' interests
with the intention of using their most zealous preoccupation as irresistible
trap bait, like the most delicious cheese for the mousetrap. How do
you determine those interests? Perhaps ironically,
most effective bait requires the least amount of searching.
The best bait is usually the most
obvious. Shakela, for example, just
loves horse. She constantly talks about horses, always chooses books
and draws pictures of horses. Shakela has horse cut-
outs pasted on her notebooks, horse patches sewn to her jacket, and
a horse pendant hanging around her neck. Her teacher will have no
difficulty determining what to use as bait for Shakela's
is when students do not make their interests so apparent that the
teacher will need to search.
topic or activity is likely to be effective as bait to the degree
that a student (a) engages in or expresses interest
in it, (b) spends
time on it, and (c) relates to it in a variety of ways. How often
does Brian talk about motorcycles?
How much time in one sitting does
he spend looking at books about motorcycles? Does he draw pictures
Are all of his written compositions about motorcycles,
regardless of the content of the day's story starter? Does he collect
or make model motorcycles? Does he mimic the sounds of a motorcycle
while moving about the classroom? If the answers
to these questions
are "Several times each day," "hours at a time if we let him," "yes,
yes, yes, and yes," then Brain
will almost certainly fall "victim"
to a well-designed behavior trap baited with all manner of motorcycle
important indicator of effective bait is the student's history
of involvement with the activity or topic. If Brian has
in motorcycles for as long as anyone can remember, they will almost
certainly prove to be excellent
bait. If his love affair with motorcycles
is relatively recent, however, motorcycle bait may be ineffective
novelty wears off.
Some specific tactics for discovering a student's interests:
* Ask the student who his
or her heroes are. They might be athletes,
TV stars, cartoon characters, musicians, or comic book heroes. Children'
idols make particularly tasty trap bait.
* Ask the student what she or he is "really into." These interests
include computer games, cooking, building model cars, playing
basketball, collecting insects, or drawing pictures.
Ask the student's parents and peers if there are any activities
that the student spends most his or her free time doing.
* Observe the student's disruptive behaviors for the possibility of
turning them into positive traps (like Carlos's
baseball cards). Some
undesirable behaviors, such as passing notes or throwing paper airplanes
in class, can be used
as bait for a trap and turned into positive
* Provide a variety of activities for students
to sample in order
to see if they develop a strong interest. Like the young man who had
never gone bowling before
but was quickly "hooked" once he had the
experience, a student given the opportunity to read stories to the
class or to take Polaroid pictures and write captions
for a classroom scrapbook might develop a strong enough interest
that those activities can function as effective bait.
It is possible (in fact, quite often likely) that the
bait available--the student's most preferred mania--is far from the
teacher's first choice. Within the
limits of legal, ethical, and moral
considerations, however, the teacher should resist placing value judgments
the student's interests. Curtis, for example, believes that Dennis
Rodman is the coolest guy in the world, and if given
the chance, he
would read about his hero all morning long. Although his teacher may
think Curtis could use a better
role model than the roughhouse basketball
player, he should realize and appreciate that Mr. Rodman is helping
practice the target skill of reading. Understandably, most
teachers would prefer that their students read The Prince and
Pauper rather than a Spiderman comic book. But without the reading
skills they acquire with the help of their
favorite comic book superheroes,
some students may never be capable of reading "good literature."
Step 3: Set the Trap
Once some powerful bait has been selected, use it to set the trap.
No trap will be effective
unless it is placed within "the path" of
its intended prey. Like the householder with his or her mousetrap,
must bait and set a behavior trap so the student can'
t help but "smell the cheese." Remember too: Behavior traps must
easy to enter. Be sure to place enough good, fresh bait at the mouth
of the trap to lure the student in. Using
stale bait or not enough
bait will be ineffective (e.g., a two-paragraph newspaper story about
Dennis Rodman that
Curtis has already read three times). Don't "give
away the store," either. Curtis may just have to sit down during reading
to see the first part of a story, but to learn all the new "dope"
on his hero, he may need to write and/or answer
questions about the
Don't make it hard for the student to find or discover the trap. Place
"right under his nose."
Some possible strategies for setting behavior traps are as follows:
* Form a classroom
club. Clubs provide many possibilities for learning
and practicing academic and social skills. For example, a student
who is lured into a cooking club soon finds himself practicing a wide
range of academic skills: reading recipes, following
volume, adding and multiplying fractions, and discovering science
concepts. His social skills
also get a good workout as he and the
members of his cooking "team" must learn to cooperate, negotiate,
and be polite
to one another while developing menu plans.
* Get help from student confederates. Ask popular students to include
the target student in their group. They are usually more than willing
to help just to get their teacher's approval.
If the social reinforcement
is not enough to initiate the invitation, tangible reinforcement should
then gradually faded out. If this seems a little dubious
ethically, focus on the outcome. Once the target student is accepted
into a reinforcing peer group trap that will extend his social skills
and make the time he spends in school much more
pleasant, the potential
ethical concern becomes irrelevant.
* Give the student a job that matches her interests
target skills. For example, the classroom tattler might be given the
role of classroom recorder, writing
and reporting a record of the
good things other students are doing. This would be an effective way
to develop and
extend the student's writing and speaking skills.
* Get help from other teachers and other members of the community.
Target students can be teachers' helpers, provide assistance in an
early childhood or special education class, or
join a community service
group to help others who are less fortunate. Outside school supports
are important sources
of behavior traps.
Step 4: Maintain Your Trap Line
Don't overwork your trap. To ensure success, expect and
with small prey at first, gradually expecting more as you progressively
discover the capability of your
trap. It is very important to start
small. Introduce skills with which the student has experienced some
and then gradually build on those skills. Do not
bombard the student, or the natural reinforcer will lose its effect.
Even though Nina is crazy about insects, making her write a 10-page
research report on the topic--especially if her
research and writing
skills are not well developed--could destroy the power of insects
as good bait. Instead, her
teacher might start by simply having her
classify insects by their appearance, then perhaps go on to labeling
writing brief descriptions about her favorite "bugs," and so
on. Eventually, Nina might very well be producing 10-page
with all the detail of an experienced entomologist, but only if her
teacher uses the insect trap wisely and
judiciously. If Nina begins
to express distaste for the skills expected, her teacher is overworking
the trap and should
probably back off.
Remember that fresh bait is requisite to an effective trap line. Stale
bait is a weak and ineffective
lure. Stay on the look-out for new
activities, new materials, and new skills that will prevent satiation.
give the trap a rest periodically; traps left out in the
elements eventually corrode and must be discarded Do not wait
the student loses her enthusiasm before bringing the trap inside,
away from the elements. By keeping a student
away from his or her
obsession every now and then, the teacher creates a little deprivation
that will help keep the
trap in good working order.
Step 5: Appraise Your Catch
Look for evidence that you've captured the right prey:
changes in the student's performance and use of the targeted skills.
Regular and direct assessments of
the target skill will help you decide
if your catch is "big enough to keep." When a trap proves ineffective,
ascertain why it is not working and make the necessary adjustments.
You may also wish to create and set out another trap.
Whenever a trap
yields a substantial catch, both teacher and student should celebrate!
Continue to maintain and extend
a successful trap's operation. You
may eventually find that the student becomes so adept with his or
her new skills,
the trap may no longer be necessary.
TWENTY-FIVE PRACTICAL BEHAVIOR TRAPS
a student can be caught in as many different behavior
traps as opportunity permits. Although behavior traps are truly
what serves as effective bait for one student often catches some
additional prey as well because many
of our students share the same
macroculture. The following specific behavior traps are organized
into five categories:
hero traps, fetish traps, classroom club traps,
school and community resource traps, and turning-around-behaviors-
Many children have heroes. These real or fictitious people are often
by our culture through the media, which provides many resources
for teachers to use. Hero traps share in common many of
the same potential
activities that serve to maintain and extend academic and social skills.
Begin by finding as many
books, magazines, posters, stickers, CDs,
videos, audiotapes, and/or computer games as you can find to lure
Six hero traps are the musician trap, the famous athlete
trap, the cartoon character trap, the TV trap, the movie star
and the comic book trap. The following are suggestions for student
activities using hero traps.
arts. Students can write letters to the hero or fan club
asking for signed photographs; write scripts or stories using
heroes as characters; pretend to interview the heroes; write titles
of the heroes' songs, movies, or TV shows
in alphabetical order; classify
the heroes' movies, songs, and so forth; and read about their heroes.
Students can use promotional cups from fast-food restaurants
to practice regrouping or classifying; do math drill games
the their heroes; use averaging, counting, fractions, or statistics
for recording things like home runs,
batting averages, foul shots,
rebounds, or touchdowns by favorite athletes; listen to songs by
musician heroes and
record the durations, then use these numbers for
adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and/or averaging; find
how much money their heroes make per year and divide it into dollars
per month, week, day, or hour; and create a budget
using the hero'
3. Curriculum content areas. Students can find the geographic location
of the hero's
birthplace, concert tours, or sport schedule; make a
time line of the hero's career; and find information about the hero'
s place of birth.
The word fetish usually evokes unsavory images. After
all, the dictionary
tells us that a fetish is "an abnormally obsessive preoccupation or
attachment; a fixation" (American
Heritage Dictionary, 1992). But
not all fetishes are bad! A fetish trap can be set around just about
any topic or
activity with which a student is preoccupied. Three examples
are the motorcycle trap, the race car trap, and the horse
can engage in fetish trap activities in the following areas:
1. Language arts. Students can draw
pictures and write stories, research
the topic, give oral reports, write descriptions, alphabetize the
and read about the fetish of their choice.
2. Math. Students can classify types, compare prices, compare speeds,
use prices and speeds as numbers for any basic math operation.
3. Curriculum content areas. Students can research the history of
the fetish (e.g., the winners of the Kentucky
Derby for the past 10
years); build on physical science concepts such as momentum, stopping
distance, friction, and
wheels and axles; and find geographic locations
(e.g., motorcycles from Japan, England, and Germany).
Classroom club traps are particularly effective for building social
skills such as negotiating, beginning
and ending conversations, and
asking for and offering help. Possible academic activities will vary
for each club.
Nine classroom club traps are described below.
1. Gameboy(R) club trap. Students can explain how to play, write directions,
classify games, alphabetize games, share strategies, and graph scores.
2. Cooking club trap. Students can read
and follow directions, measure,
apply science concepts, classify and alphabetize recipes for a club
an opinion survey on foods cooked, and compare temperatures
and cooking times.
3. Model building club trap. Students
can read and follow directions,
measure, compare lengths and widths, estimate distances and time
needed to build,
and use numerical data for graphing.
4. Sports team trap. Students can keep score; graph outcomes of a
of games; measure time duration of games; and practice speed,
endurance, strength, and dexterity.
5. Science club
trap. Students can collect rocks, shells, leaves,
or insects; classify items; measure and weigh items; research a topic
of interest and write reports; and give oral presentations.
6. Computer club trap. Students can do math drills,
choose their own
adventure reading, write stories, problem solve with simulations,
and create graphics (the academic
skills for computer club activities
are limited only by the software).
7. Classroom newsletter club trap. Students
can conduct interviews,
write book and movie reviews, report on athletic events, report on
classroom events, make
illustrations, write captions, write riddles,
design advertisements, and design layout.
8. Classroom store club
trap. Students can inventory supplies, count
money, calculate change, write purchase orders, calculate profits
losses, and be cordial when serving customers.
9. Baseball card club trap. Students can find geographic locations
of teams and players, alphabetize players' names, classify by positions
or teams, calculate averages, and compare
and interpret statistics.
School and Community Resource Traps
Four examples of school
and community traps and their corresponding
activities are as follows:
1. Teacher's helper trap. Students can
read aloud to younger children,
peer tutor younger children, correct papers, measure and cut bulletin
count field trip money, sort students' papers, and proofread
2. Band or chorus trap. Students
can practice social skills, read
music and/or lyrics, and practice organization skills (like coming
on time with appropriate
3. Safety patrol trap. Students can practice social skills, write
a daily log or journal of experiences,
and count and graph times when
intervening is necessary.
4. Community service trap. Students can practice social
opportunities for volunteer work, and develop the skills necessary
for performing the type of service
they will be providing.
Three behavior traps in this category
are the paper airplane trap,
the note-passing trap, and the tattle-tail trap. The secret to the
effectiveness of these
traps is having a controlled time and procedure
in which the usually annoying and inappropriate behaviors can be used
1. Paper airplane trap. Students can measure flight distances, experiment
to find out which design
is best for each kind of flight, write step-
by-step directions for making paper airplanes, explain to other students
how to make paper airplanes, and read and follow directions from books
about making various airplane designs.
Note-passing trap. Students can write notes to peers, read notes
from peers, and write responses to peers.
Tattle-tail trap. Students can write about the positive behaviors
of other students, keep an ongoing record of classroom
read recorded observations to the class at the end of each day or
do baseball cards, horses, motorcycles, Dennis Rodman, and bugs
have in common? Although not likely to appear on many
of neccesary instructional materials, for Carlos, Shakela, Brian,
Curtis, and Nina, these seemingly
unrelated entities provided the
motivation to learn and practice important skills. Once caught, these
little interest in escaping the traps their teachers
had set for them. They did, however, display a great deal more interest
in and enjoyment of school.
By Sheila R. Alber and William L. Heward
Support for this article was provided by a Leadership
(H029D10054) from the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation
Services, U.S. Department of Education.
Sheila R. Alber, MEd, is a doctoral student in special education and
applied behavior analysis at The Ohio State University.
Heward, EdD, is a professor of special education and coordinator of
the applied behavior analysis program
at The Ohio State University.
DOES TELEVISION INFLUENCE AGGRESSION IN CHILDREN?
Many parents feel the burden of their children who have either become violent at a early age when they are vulnerable or
at a age when they are adolescents influenced by a array of objects which are a norm of society. However how a child becomes
violent can be due to a number of factors in society, which according to researchers at Stanford University in the United
States include decreasing the exposure of children to television and videos could reduce some of the negative effects of electronic
media such as violence and teasing. According to the study by the age of 18, children in the US will have witnessed an estimated
200,000 acts of violence. If they witness a continuous diet of aggressive, anti-social behaviour then it is little wonder
that those who are more impressionable than others will act out what they see in real life. Furthermore teasing, hitting and
other forms of violence can, for some children, become common ways of interacting with their peers. The onus, it seems, is
on parents to help children find alternatives to endless hours of television viewing. It may even mean spending more time
with them. Television and other forms of electronic media have their place. What parent has not been thankful at some stage
for the electronic baby-sitter that sits in the corner of the family room with its magical powers to keep children amused.
But increasingly it appears that there needs to be limits, boundaries and a fair amount of parental discretion used when kids
interact with electronic media. That means mastering the television rather than being its slave.
Take the quiz at http://www.parentingideas.com.au/howwell.html to find out how well you know your children.
As Angela Schwindth once said " While we try to teach our children about life, our children teach us what life is